What is systematics and why was it created?
All organisms, with the exception of beetles, have their scientific names, which are written in Latin, Greek or Latinized expressions of other languages.
Why? Because these names must be clearly understandable to everyone around the world.
To this end, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN; website: http://iczn.org/) has been set up to publish the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. This publication clearly sets out the rules and standards that govern the scientific naming of animal taxa (genera, species, subspecies…), as well as higher taxonomic units (orders, superorders, families…).
Division of systematics
Systematics has the following components:
- biological nomenclature – systematic naming of species of organisms and other taxa,
- classification – sorting into groups according to certain rules,
- taxonomie sensu stricto – theoretical taxonomy,
- microtaxonomy – taxonomy of species and taxa of lower categories,
- macrotaxonomy – taxonomy of higher taxa than species.
The basic taxonomic categories are the following:
- empire = regnum
- stem, department = phyllum, divisio
- class = classis
- order = ordo
- family = familia
- genus = genus
- species = species
How to spell beetle names correctly?
The basic names of all species are two-word (binomial) and consist of the genus and species names.
Pachnoda marginata – a species belonging to the genus Pachnoda
Sometimes the species is still divided into subspecies (subspecies; abbreviated ssp.):
- Pachnoda marginata peregrina
- Pachnoda marginata marginata
After the names of the species (and higher and lower taxa) are added names with the year:
- Pachnoda marginata peregrina Kolbe, 1906
- Pachnoda marginata marginata (Drury, 1773)
These names say who first described the species (subspecies or other taxonomic unit).